“In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.”

-Benjamin Franklin

Accounting has been around since before the invention of writing. The story about the evolution of accounting begins, like many historical stories do, over 7000 years ago, in Mesopotamia.

First, man counted on fingers, this evolved into sign language. Then tallies were made carving notches wherever possible (stone, wood or bone). Our numbers, Roman numerals, evolved from these notches. The earliest form of book keeping was with clay token representations of livestock. Different clay tokens represented different amounts (for example, 12 sheep would be one 10 sheep token attached on a string to two one sheep tokens).

The earliest “records” of book keeping were found in Ancient Mesopotamia. These documents were lists of expenditures and goods received and traded. This concept continued to improve and be developed, as is evident by the access to financial information that the Roman government had. In the time of Emperor Augustus, there was an inscription of a detailed account to the roman people, it listed and quantified grants, subsidiaries and public expenditures. The detailed nature of the list suggests that it was used to make informed governmental decisions.

Double entry book keeping came into play during the medieval period, when Europe moved to a monetary economy. This meant there was a need to look over multiple transactions, as well as loans and credit. Once this method came to the world, Luca Paciolli wrote a book entitled “Reviewof Arithmetic, Geometry, Ratio and Proportion”. In this book he had a detailed section about book keeping. While he did not invent the systems described, he sold this book to merchants as a reference text. This text enabled merchants to audit their own books in order to ensure they weren’t stolen from.

As joint-stock companies were developed, accountants began to have larger audiences. Many investors had no prior knowledge about the company relied on accountants to provide the necessary information. This led into the split of accounting systems within a company. There was managing accounting for the internal portion of the company and financial accounting for the external. As this expanded there was a growing need for disclosure regulations and external auditing.

Modern accounting comes from Scotland, who organized the first society of “Chartered Accountants”, who petitioned Queen Victoria for a royal Charter, essentially making the members of this organization qualified authorities on accounting and accounting services.

When the new world was discovered it was the pinnacle of achievement for explorers between the 16th and 18th century, however the Spaniard conquests effectively led many other nations into economic chaos.


It all began when Spain occupied most of America and incidentally found huge silver deposits and started to mine the silver with the assistance or enslavement with the indigenous people that they had become masters to. After the discovery Spain became rich to a point that the Chinese actually believed that Spain had a silver mountain! This influx of the precious metal created inflation due to the imbalance of demand and supply.


The basis of economic principles is based on scarcity and when there is too much supply of something that ‘used to be’ valuable, the ‘value’ starts depreciating. In other words there was simply too much silver that the value that the silver currency carried had fallen and prices of goods had to be raised in order to compensate the fall in the value of its silver coins.


As this inflation was progressing in Spain China which was under the Ming Dynasty during that time began falling into deflation. After Spain had laid ownership of the silver in the Americas, the porcelain and silk industry was flourishing in China and accordingly issued a ruling whereby any trade conducted with the Chinese by the West, must be paid in silver (silver was being used to pay soldiers and mercenaries to fund their domestic feuds). This new rule ensured that the supply of silver to China would be growing indefinitely and as it did deflation gripped the Chinese economy.


With the increasing silver supply the Chinese currency’s value grew which made prices of goods lower (less currency was needed to purchase goods). Most consumers are happy when prices go down, however the same perception is not shared by the producers of goods who start earning less while practically maintaining similar costs as before. Businesses had to lower the prices of their goods in order to maintain the market and many of them had to bring prices down to a point that they couldn’t sustain their businesses.

This makes the goods that consumers require rare and as a result prices will start increasing again, however until that point in time deflation will cause production levels to fall which is never good for any economy. The domino effect of deflation rises from the fact that as the taxes from trade were required to be paid in silver, and the government holds back the silver and disburse too little of it back into the economy people had too little silver to purchase goods and as the price falls for basic necessities such as grain, farmers were pressed to the wall as they received too little money for their efforts.


Although all the events that transpired between the 16th and 18th century was in general a good thing, the discovery of excessive amounts of silver did cause severe instability in both China and Spain.


About this article: Cash For Old Gold is a Melbourne, Australia based gold buying company. For more information on buying and selling gold, please visit their website at www.cashforoldgold.net.au

5 Questions to answer before you decide
Without the answers to these simple questions you could end up with a phone system that won’t work for your business.

There was once a time when feature rich business phone systems seemed exclusive to big businesses and large corporations with massive budgets. But with the fast paced, technologically driven society where more people have cell phones than a toothbrush, business phone systems have become imperative to any sized business looking to be successful in the 21st century. The good news is that, implementing telephone systems in a business has become much more budget friendly, provided you choose a system specifically for your needs.

To make this process easier, below you will find 5 very important questions that every business owner should ask themselves before signing on a phone system plan.

1. What special goals are you trying to achieve with your newly acquired phone system? Write them all down. Perhaps it’s to make your business more accessible to newer markets thereby increasing your profit margin; or maybe you’re wanting to improve your customer care – perhaps you need your new phone system, and your employees, to be able to receive a greater volume of telephone calls. Also, write down the specific functionality your phone system should have. Some suggestions are: automated attendant service, caller ID, call forwarding, voice mail, intercom, paging and conferencing features. Once you’ve established your ‘wants’ or your goals, then finding your perfect match becomes simplified.

2. Do you already have a phone system? What issues do you require your new telephone system to resolve? A telephone system outage lasting a few hours, or even minutes can cost you leads, sales and produce some angry customers. What exactly is your pain point with the current or old business telephone system that you own? Perhaps it’s not operating correctly, or needs regular expensive repairs. Is your old phone system so antiquated that your employees are forced to use the more modern features of their mobile phones. Noting what’s lacking in your old phone system will assist you greatly in selecting a feature-rich system specifically appropriate for your business office.

3. Are you looking for a premise based telephone system or a hosted telephone system? Some businesses much prefer to manage their own hardware and software. Remember though that this option will require initial capital investment, plus trunk charges and phone company line charges, in addition to any recurring costs which will accrue for the smooth running of your new system. Also, you will want to work with a local business phone company who will provide the ongoing maintenance and installation for you.

The alternative option is cloud or hosted services. With this option there are no upfront costs because you’re not responsible for the purchase of the phones or system. Also, it’s not your responsibility to be concerned about software updates. Ideally your hosted telephone system would be managed off-site by your local cloud system reseller. It is a good idea to make sure that your hosted or cloud system will be installed by a local certified reseller rather than the hosted or cloud services company shipping your system to you and expecting you to connect and configure your system. With this option you’ll only pay a one-off professional installation fee, followed by a nominal monthly charge per user. Also, note that with the cloud system, your phones and software will automatically be upgraded.

Another issue to remember is scalability. Envisage how your company will grow in the future before you make a final decision. With hosted phone systems, you can easily add or remove users, but with an on premise based phone system, you will either have to purchase additional expansion for your system or potentially purchase a larger system.

4. What budget are you working with? Do your own research before purchasing a phone system and work out the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) to ensure the system is within your budget. Remember to include installation charges, capital expenses, training charges and maintenance costs when establishing the TCO. With the variety of options available, there is a good chance to find one within your budget. Consult with your local reseller to see which options work best for your specific needs.

5. What is the reputation of the company you are considering? Certainly the brand reputation of your telephone system is very important, however it’s also very important that the company you’re considering hiring to assist with your telephone needs is a well-regarded and professional business. Read online reviews, and ask for referrals. Note: If you find a negative review online, or otherwise, ask the company to explain. Often the way a company handles this kind of question will give you more information than you could get from just hearing the good things.

With a little bit of time and research you will definitely find a telephone system perfect for your business. You are more than welcome to give us a call should you like a professional recommendation or if you require any assistance at all. Our experts are waiting to help you.

Why is Northwest Telecom Systems Your Perfect Choice?
Whereas many other companies don’t provide you with multiple options, our alliances with a variety of phone and internet providers afford us the opportunity to make the most precise recommendations for your specific needs. The result: the best service at the best prices. Please don’t hesitate to give us a call today, on 503-243-2255.

Established in 1989, Northwest Telecom Systems, Inc. has a legacy of providing high quality telecommunication services and products for businesses in the Portland Metro Area. While many telecom companies are tired to a specific carrier, NW Telecom is not. This independence gives them the freedom to suggest exactly the right solution for your business telephone requirements.

Company Information:

Northwest Telecom Systems, Inc

(503) 243-2255

10824 Southeast Oak Street
Milwaukie, OR 97222


If you want to visit Quarterly report in organization, actually for any real short period of their time, you have got to make application for a great Melbourne mastercard. This short article gives some elementary details of several kinds of stage business credit usable.

You will discover about three types of charge available for stage business appointments in order to Questionnaire. It celebrated that your small business check out is NOT the same as “doing work” in the context of looking for a Melbourne mastercard.

The first is this short Continue to be Stage business Mastercard that is well suited for an appointment connected with lower than 11 weeks. This may handle a business person pertaining to usual business meetings, talks and also conferences and might be employed intended for by way of his or her picked airline or perhaps via the web. This can be a Stage business Electronic Vacation Expert (ETA). Instead, programs may be stated in publishing.

Your second kind of service charge is usually a Backed Organization Customer (short be) Charge. So that you can high quality with this form of credit, a business human being will have to be sponsored by way of person in a great Hawaiian parliament, a great authorized federal agency, community city manager or maybe some other authorised enterprise plus the recruit must assure of which their own visitant will respect every one of the mastercard disorders including what identifies the date by which they mustiness farewell the country.

The third enterprise visa is really a Non permanent Organization (Long Be) visa. You’re one of these, an applicant have to have a great authorized boss to be a mentor who has a good entitled situation usable. This boss is definitely an Australian or offshore corporation along with the staff must be a different nation’s while using the suitable ability to be able to populate the career. The actual a candidate situation have to have been accepted to be a experienced career ideal for this system, need to be fulltime as well as the very least wage as well as getting together with various Aussie laws as well as merit needs. On the other hand, prior to the employee can put on for any mastercard, this employer will have to affect be described as a mentor associated with abroad workers in addition to nominate the position openings being filled. The particular nominating speech time period is going to be yr as well as until all of the vacancies ar filled, no matter which will be the smaller. This sponsorship is going to be for just a duration of a couple of years and also the mastercard period of time can be everything from 3 many weeks to be able to four many years. Nevertheless, when the member of staff wishes to change use, he’s going to are looking for a different approved mentor with the a candidate place as well as re-have a working permit.

Detailed information of all the so-called supra can be located on the Australian Governing Team of Immigration law and also Multicultural Personal business site.

In our following content, we’re going to check out employed in Sydney compared to as being a stage business visitant.

Your internet community involving small business airline flight family and friends is definitely pondering strategies to help to make travel simpler. You need to bankruptcy lawyer las vegas task goes out and about base for several several weeks at a time! The following tips tend to be with regard to stage business along with amusement vacation goers.

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